Discipline, what is it and why do we need it?

Dictionary meaning of discipline: the practice of training people to obey rules or a code of behavior, using punishment to correct disobedience

So discipline is all about rules and punishment for not obeying it.
To go deeper into discipline we should question, What should be the rules? And what should be the punishment?
Without defining the two, we can't really address discipline issue.

Most of the time neither the rules are defined and made public. Neither the rules are practical enough to be followed.

The first step should be to define the classroom rules, rules must be simple so that students remember the rule, as no one will remember complex rules:

While I teach I have made 4 rules that work pretty well.

1) As I teach with discussion friendly, inquiry-based learning, I faced a big problem, where students always try to talk out of the context and irrelevant things. So I made a rule that for half an hour no one will talk or ask any irrelevant questions (not related to the topic) or discuss it.
2) No use  of mobile and internet for half an hour.  But the internet is allowed with permission and reason for use. Mobile use by students distracts them completely from studies.
3) This is a new rule I added when these naughty students started using funny irrelevant filler while they talk with their classmate when I ask them a question/discuss. I said you can't use irrelevant fillers because its distracts you from concentrating on the topic.
4) Another problem I faced is when I speak or discuss the query of a particular student, other students don't pay attention or listen to me. As the query is not made by the student, they don't feel to listen to it. So I said them not just to listen, but WHY to listen to your friend queries?
Why listen to other students queries?
a) If you already understood the answers of questions, you will have a deeper understanding of the answers
b) You will learn about teamwork and get involved with your friends in learning. If you talk about other matters and have fun with friends, then why not also participate in discussing the material of the subjects.

What is the punishment for disobeying the rule?
The punishment is simple, just remind them the rule when they don't obey it, and sometimes they face anger from me if they don't do it.

But I have only a few students in the classroom, most of the schools have more than 40 students, different approaches can be made to tackle indiscipline with trail and error, to know what works best and what not, like using cameras in the classroom, giving them particular task that is beneficial to them as punishment for disobedience etc. ( Not like writing the misspelled word for thousands times or corporal punishment, which I used to get in schools)

But  still I face many problems with students, but not behavior issues, it related to time spent outside the classroom which I have no control, also about in hurry to complete the syllabus. I have my limited time, which I can give them. That's the autonomy skills and self-motivation that they have to learn while outside the classroom.

So the most important thing here is, it not about just giving them the rule book to follow, but convincing them why the rule is made for their benefits and how it will benefit them?

Another important article that I like the most is
http://www.edutopia.org/discussion/6-rules-being-transparent-teens-authentic-relationships-lead-engagement
http://www.teachthought.com/pedagogy/a-really-really-well-written-set-of-classroom-rules/
and there are other articles about discipline which teachers can go through.
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