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Probability distribution of marks should not be normal.

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What type of variable is the mark, discrete or continuous?
Marks is a discrete random variable that has a finite number of values or a countable number of values.

A continuous random variable has infinitely many values, and those values can be associated with measurements on a continuous scale in such a way that there are no gaps or interruptions.

Requirements for a Probability Distribution
1. ΣP(x) = 1 where x assumes all possible values of marks
2. 0 ≤ P(x) ≤ 1 for every individual value of x

For example, 2000 students gave exams with full marks of 10, the probability distribution of marks to have a normal like curve will have following frequency distribution given in the table.


Marks xFrequency fProbability P(X=x)040.0021230.01152990.049532270.113543990.199554970.248563900.19572510.12558840.0429220.0111040.002



import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import random import numpy as np from collections import Counter, OrderedDict fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1) od = OrderedDict([(0.0, 4), (1.0, 23…

Producing a better secure electoral voting system

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Here is the complete procedure to make a secure voting system.

We require a unique key for every voter.

The unique key is generated by using:
1) Public Key: Voter Id or Adhaar Number
2) Private key: A random key (6-8 character alphanumeric key) from mind, at the time of voting
3) Vote symbol




A read-only machine generates a unique key using the cryptographic function on the public key, private key and vote symbol.

Then ballot paper is printed from the machine that has the unique key.

The voter casts its vote in the ballot paper.

The votes in ballot paper are counted using a machine and also the scan of the ballot paper is uploaded on the website after results are declared.
Machine learning has become so powerful that it can count the vote without any error.

When the result is declared the public can check whether that ballot paper (that has the unique key) exists on the website with the correct voting symbol. The voter can authenticate that his/her vote has been counted.


Merits:
1) Com…

Why we face difficulty to remember non-concrete information?

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What are the functions of a brain?
Pattern recognition, interpretation and storing of information that we get from our sense organs
I would go with following steps to show that non-concrete information is the type of information that our brain is not trained for. The most requirement to remember abstract information is more recent when mathematics and different languages were invented.
The invention of writing that allowed storing information that we can't remember.
The human being invented abstract information like more than one language or mathematics which we are evolutionarily unfit to remember.
Are we evolutionary unfit to memorize abstract information? Do prove it lets look the following experiment.
The brain is good at recognizing things in a span of seconds. For example, we change our path if there is a hindrance in front. But if you close your eyes, we will miss details of the hindrance.

Let's try to memorize this map in a span of seconds or minutes. Can you do it?
Memorizin…

Country needs an independent news analysis institution to provide feedback to media

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How to analyze news and what shall be the criteria?

Are the information provided backed by the evidence?


Do they site down the evidence in the news?
Do evidence are from reliable sources with rigorous testing?
Does the news show one-sided or biased views without looking at all angles?
Is the information provided is an opinion/belief/viewpoint or hypothesis or scientific theory?


Opinion: a view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge.
Does the hypothesis/claim is well tested and is statistically significant to draw the conclusion?





Is media promoting pseudoscience?


Does the discussion done come under any of the logical fallacy?

For more detailed explanation of logical fallacy with examples is given in

Important details for Evaluating a News Article:


Line by line scripts of news taking context into consideration must be analyzed along with bulk analysis by data scientists.

The independent institute should open source the analysis to public so that it …

Personalized learning goals: New information is built over reusing of previous information

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Please donate to help me build a platform for personalized education and exams.


Donations through Impact Guru in Indian Rupees:

https://www.impactguru.com/fundraiser/personalized-education

Some students perform better, while others not. What are the main reasons?
1) Study material provided and learning strategies used by teachers.It simply doesn't meet the learning criteria. Students are feed with so much of abstract stuff as a result only those students excel who have a better memory retention capacity of abstract information and those who work too hard for it. But such a hard work is meaningless, as you will forget such information after exams are over.

2) Not teaching kids from where they are. 
I will explain it with a concrete example.

While teaching chemistry, one of my students was so fast in holding information and doing the problems, while other was slow. The reason for her/his slowness is not that he/she is less intelligent, it's because (s)he is taking more time for pr…

Critical Analysis on NEET Biology Questions, comparison with Campbell Biology Questions

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All entrance exams only test rote memorization of abstract concepts without testing critical thinking and in-depth knowledge. Questions don't let you think, just requires a recall of abstract data that you have memorized.

Today I will review few questions of NEET and compare those questions with Campbell book

Look at the question, it's very descriptive, and promotes critical thinking, just reading the question itself makes you think even if you don't know the answer









But what NEET will ask
The equivalent of a structural gene is:
1) Operon 2) Recon 3) Muton 4) Cistron

Believe me, students would have just memorized or linked structural gene with cistron by attempting previous years questions. The questions simply don't make you think. Do the questions address the answer to the question why Cistron is called a structural gene?
From the internet:
A structural gene is a gene that codes for any RNA or protein product other than a regulatory factor (i.e. regulatory protein)
Cis…

CBSE and other boards, All about rote memorization of abstract information

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Most questions of CBSE 12th board, all requires rote memorization of abstract information that adds no understanding to the subject.

Let us analyze the style of question in CBSE:

This is the question from book Nivaldo J Tro:

The question gives some background knowledge,  structures are already given and the question really tests your understanding, not how much you have memorized.




Answer:  Option Vitamin C and Vitamin B5 are water soluble as it contains many polar groups and others have large nonpolar groups (Vit K3 and Vit A) so its fat soluble.



What type of questions you will expect in CBSE?
Name the water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins?
or Something like is Vitamin C water soluble? (The structure of Vitamin C will not be given)
How are vitamins classified? Name the vitamin which is fat soluble.

"All these questions require rote memorization of vitamins:" Fat soluble vitamins are A D E and K
Water soluble vitamins are Vitamin B

So, just rote memorization is enough, yo…
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Introvert, open minded, always learning, scientific, critical thinker, logical

Interests are in programming, statistics, molecular biology, evolution, psychology, ecology and politics